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Approval of Schliesselburg coat of arms
The coat of arms was developed by the count Francisco de Santi, a friend of king-of-arms, according to the Senate decree of 1724.
On March 3rd, 1730 the coat of arms was approved by the empress Anna Ioannovna. Then it was approved by the Senate decree dated March 8th, 1730.
On May 7th, 1780 the coat of arms was approved the empress Catherine II (description: “There is a fortress on the blue background”; there is s gold key under crown above the fortress”).
May 7th, 1857 the coat of arms was reapproved by the emperor Alexander II with some additions: it was added a silver and green parts and status framing according to Kene reform.
The beginning of Staroladogsky Canal operation
1731 – the canal dug through by order of Peter the Great (Staroladogsky Canal) began its operation. Waterway ran along the Canal. Through the waterway all needed things were delivered to Saint-Petersburg, the capital of Russia, and the main part of goods was transported for export.
March 27th, 1731 – The Secretariat of a big Ladoga Canal was found on order of the empress Anna Ioannovna for organization of all works for vessels passing on Peter I Canal.
Nowadays the Secretariat is Neva-Ladoga division of waterways and shipping.
Staroladogsky canal connects the rivers Volhov and Neva bypassing Ladoga Lake. Canal length is 117 km.
The foundation of the first ship repair workshops
1755- The workshops for passing-by vessels repair were established under the Secretariat of a big Ladoga Canal.
1764 – Schliesselburg cotton print factory started its work. The factory manufactured high-quality cotton called at that time “silk for populace”. The goods were sold in Russia as well as abroad.
After the Canal opening the main activities of the Schliesselburg population were piloting, maintaining of water level in the Canal, repair of ships, sluices and other canal structures.
The Schliesselburg location at the source of the river Neva was considered strategically significant. For this reason the town was military settlement. The main part of population represented solders and officers of Ladoga battalion participated in Canal protection and maintenance, and garrison of Schliesselburg fortress; men quality dominated over women quality.
The town became the centre of Schliesselburg district immense territory. Nowadays, this territory divides into Kirovsky, Vsevolozhsky and Tosnensky districts of Leningrad region.
The construction of the Canal named after Empress Catherine II
1800-1806 – According to the project of Ivan Gerard (Gerhard Johann) it was started the construction of new mouth to increase canal capacity. It was named after Empress Catherine II (Malonevsky Canal).
1820-1841 – sluices modernization and ashlaring (facing) by granite in accordance with the project of the engineer Pierre-Dominique Bazaine under the direction of the colonel Nikolai Bogdanov.
The beginning of regular trip of steamer “Kometa”
1842 - The beginning of regular trip of steamer “Kometa” on route Petersburg-Schliesselburg.
New bypass canal named after Emperor Alexander II
In 1861-1866 it was dug new bypass canal named after Emperor Alexander II over which the steamer could sail (Novoladogsky Canal). The quality of vessels passing by Schliesselburg increased rapidly as they could stop in comfortable town harbors for rest and repair.
The concept of famous picture
There is a version that Ilya Repin saw hard work of haulers for vessels piloting acceleration for the first time on Schliesselburg canals.
So this was the concept of famous picture “Barge haulers on the Volga”. At the same time it was made the first water color sketch.
Construction of new facilities
90’s of the XIXth century – construction of new production facilities for Schliesselburg cotton print factory.
Cotton print factory renamed Petr Alexeev factory under Soviet government “turned over“ after the Great Patriotic War its territory and facilities built at the end of the XIXth century and the tradition of the highest quality goods production to fast developing factory.p>
The walls with thickness of 3,5 bricks stood bombings and shellings during the Great Patriotic War as well as test of time (more than 100 years). These buildings are the monument of the industrial architecture of the XIXth century. Till now they are used for production necessities of Nevsky Shipyard.
The establishment of ship repair workshops
The ship repair workshops were established according to the order of the Ministry of railways dated November 4th, 1913. But officially it was found on November 6th according to the “Regulations about foundation, works carrying out and accountability of state ship repair workshops for marine and dredging convoy of Saint-Petersburg district of the Ministry of railways”. That’s why this date, November 6th, 1913, is considered to be the date of Nevsky Shipyard foundation day. The most advanced equipment at that time: face, turning, universal milling, planning, and woodworking machines, sledge hammer for iron and nonferrous castings, lift and carry equipment was installed at the workshops.
The main task of the ship repair workshops was repair of state steamers, dredging vessels and other types of vessels.
Schliesselburg population was more than 7000 people. The town looked like Petersburg in miniature thanks to its canal, multiethnic population, practicing different religions, and wide outlet to water areas. There were Polish Roman Catholic Church and 2 synagogues along with orthodox temples. Stone houses of local merchant class and shopping centre decorated the town centre. The main activities of the locals were fishery, repair and piloting of river vessels on canals and Ladoga Lake.
Revolutionary disturbances period
1917 – under the direction of former political prisoners of Schliesselburg prison the labours tried to build socialism in separate district. They refused the orders of Provisional government contradictory to their interests. Labour control was introduced; disliked representatives of Shipyard management were banished. The landlords’ estates were transferred under the direction of farm labours.
The journalists called the district “Schliesselburg republic” because of these actions.
1917-1918 – The ship repair workshops labours actively participated in October armed insurrection and civil war.
After the revolution of 1917 the power was handed over to the Town Council, during civil war to the town committee of Bolshevik party. All town enterprises were nationalized.
The ship repair workshops were nationalized in January of 1918.
Serious effects of the War and the Revolution
Revolutionary disturbances, civil war, problems with provisions resulted in protracted production crisis. The labours lifted vessels on shore and protected them from plunder. The labours of the ship repair workshops only disassembled river vessels for spare parts and stocked firewood for heating and steam engine starting. The fact that pre-war cargo traffic level and the scope of ship repair works were restored only by 1930 shows the significant material loss caused by the First World War and the Revolution.
Schliesselburg carried out the pass to New Economic Policy: part of river vessels was returned to former owners, private shops and places of entertainment were opened. In 1922 75% of valuables were confiscated from town churches under the pretext of struggle against famine in Volga region. Schliesselburg became frontier as the border of USSR and Finland passed along the Ladoga Lake. Only the availability of the special permit from Internal Affair Agency gave the right for entry in Schliesselburg.
The ship repair workshops development
1934 – Development of the Stakhanovite movement at the workshops. The labours participated in production control, socialist competition. The industrialization accelerated Schliesselburg development. The town became important part of Volgo-Baltic Water System through which the equipment was delivered for large industrial new buildings in the interior part of the country, supply was delivered in the second largest city of USSR and the goods were exported.
1936 - the ship repair workshops were awarded higher status of II rank ship repair yard in accordance with the order of river fleet People’s Commissar. On the eve of the Great Patriotic War the ship repair yard reached the level of I rank enterprise by production output and labours quantity.
The town was growing. Population size reached 15 000 people. Two secondary schools, hospitals and cafeterias were working in the town. Along with public stores market was opened the goods for which were delivered from nearby collective farms.
The ship repair yard operation during the Great Patriotic War
On June 22nd, 1941, the first day of the Great Patriotic War, there were numerous meetings in the workshops. After that many workers signed up volunteers for the Red Army and people’s volunteer corps.
By the decision of the State Defence Committee the ship repair yard was evacuated to Velikiy Ustyug as Germans were quickly approaching Leningrad. The equipment was installed at the earliest possible day here on the base of ship repair workshops. Evacuated ship repair yard started repair and remodeling of civil ships into naval ships. Later in cooperation with ship repair yard “National fleet” the enterprise started to produce motor shells by order of the Main Artillery Board and field kitchens for Transport and Economic Department.
During the years of the Great Patriotic War ship repair yard labours produced about 1 million of motor shells, 800 field kitchens and repaired over 100 river vessels for the front. 170 workers of the enterprise were awarded the orders and the medals for valorous labours.
In spring of 1944 after the breaking of the Leningrad blockade labours returned to the home town for ship repair yard restoration.
1945 – 1950
In the first postwar years labours focused all efforts on restoration of the native ship repair yard. The renovation of production and office facilities was finished by 1946.
The building of new workshops was carrying out simultaneously with modernization of ship repair facilities. The feed lifting crane building and the slipway construction finished in 1950 made it possible to lift on shore heavy tonnage vessels for repair. As a result the cost of vessel lifting on slipway dropped from 40% of complete repair cost to 2%.
The ship repair yard labours actively participated in fleet modernization including change of vessel steam plants to diesel ones, changing-over steam vessels from wood to coal and fuel oil, remodeling of Finnish lighters into self-propelled motor vessels
In 1944 Schliesselburg was renamed Petrokrepost. From 1947 the labours started to reconstruct housing (till that time the townspeople were living in dugout), multifamily housings were actively built on Kirova, Zatonnaya and Proletarskaya streets, trade was developed, and cinema and transport resumed its work (townspeople got to Leningrad by ferry across the river Neva and then by railway Nevskaya Dubrobka – Finlyandsky station).
The beginning of shipbuilding activity
1952 year has significant importance in Nevsky Shipyard’s history. The management of North-Western River Shipping Company made decision to start shipbuilding on its production facilities. The Shipyard labours began to build motor vessels of “Leningradets” series for all industry. These vessels were able to sail under the bridges of Leningrad regardless of its drawing. The first vessel was launched in 1954. In total Nevsky Shipyard has built 18 such vessels. The enterprise has mastered the construction of oil vessels and barge for sand transportation. From 1952 to 2001 the Shipyard has built 260 vessels of different purposes and classes: small passengers’ vessels to tug boats and “river-sea” vessels. Serial shipbuilding became one of the main Shipyard activities.
From 1966 Nevsky Shipyard started to carry our complete repair of marine engines for all enterprises of the European part of the country. The labours mastered steering hydraulic gears with the help of specialists of industrial scientific research institutes. In cooperation with lifting and handling equipment plant the Shipyard started to produce unique in USSR slipway equipment – dollies and winches.
Intensive development of the Shipyard
The most intensive development of Nevsky Shipyard was in 70s- beginning of 80s last century significantly by virtue of director Evgeniy Yashin.
At Evgeniy Yashin initiative new reconstruction of almost all the workshops of Shipyard began: NC machines, first computers and automatic devices were installed. The Shipyard was the first in USSR there labours of blank production shop used plasma cutting machine operated by program made in Japan. A lot of machine building production types were mastered: steering hydraulic gears produced for all branch, launching dollies and friction hoists, machine-tools for shipbuilding production. Great experience was accumulated in producing of ship arrangements and equipment: propulsion shafts, spindles, rudders, ship doors, steering nozzles, spare parts for engines. Building berth was prepared for simultaneous repair of 15 vessels. New workshops were opened: machine-assembly shop, cartridge-case shop. Engineering and administrative offices, hull-assembly workshop were being built and foundation was laid for future covered shed.
New stage of enterprise development
Since 2001 the shipyard has begun to build «river-sea» dry-cargo vessels of «Valday» type. These vessels were intended to carry cargoes not only by waters of Russia, but also to countries near and far abroad. It was planned to produce all the machine building equipment for «Valday» on the Nevsky Shipyard. Namely Shliesselburg was supposed to be the repair base for ship engines. Due to this the enterprise reached double over-fulfillment of planned production volumes. It began to render the services not only for its holding but other companies too.
After slipway reconstruction finished on May 2004 its cargo capacity increased up to 3000 ton that provided lifting of almost all the «river-sea» vessels. Two covered shed with length of 220 and width 42 and 48 meters were built (the premises for construction and repair of vessels on shore). The modernization of open slip launching arrangement was finished; the cranes were restored to service. New line was put into operation in one of the workshop. Installation of German equipment there allowed reducing considerably the factory labour hours.
Measures for restoring to health an enterprise provided it with guaranteed ship repair orders by North-west fleet as well as other shipping companies. Shipyard returned its customary shipbuilding, ship repair and machine building orders. In 2007-2008 the order book made 75-80% of Nevsky Shipyard full load.
Three components of Nevsky Shipyard success
Nowadays shipbuilding is still the main activity of enterprise. Since 2009, the Shipyard has had a full order book building ready-to-operate vessels of all types. Nevsky Shipyard is constantly updating its production capacities to ensure the highest standards of shipbuilding and ship repair. Currently two important projects are carried out. The first one is 4 salvage vessels for the state customer and the second one – 10 dry-cargo vessels of «river-sea» type.
Ship repair is another important part of the Shipyard business. Repairs include navigational, maintenance, dry docking, modernization and remodeling. Today Nevsky Shipyard with more than thousand employees stands in the way of revival and evolvement of good shipbuilding, ship repair and machine building traditions.
The keystone of any labour collective, its flesh and blood is people dedicated their lives to work on Nevsky Shipyard founded and continued the famous labour dynasties of shipbuilders and ship repairers, they brought honor/reputation and glory to the enterprise. Families of Mahorkin, Filimonov, Kurochkin, Gavrilov, Zamyshlyaev, Yashin and many others worked perfect for the benefit of native plant and deserved respect of all the Shliesselburg citizens.